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PAS 2070

Incorporating Amendment No. 1

Specification for the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions of a city – Direct plus supply chain and consumption-based methodologies

PAS 2070 is free to download

> Complete the short registration form to download

What is the aim of PAS 2070?

PAS 2070 aims to provide a robust and transparent method for consistent, comparable and relevant quantification, attribution and reporting of city-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This will encourage more holistic GHG assessments, greater disclosure and more meaningful benchmarking to help city decision makers identify key emission sources and their drivers, the carbon dependence of their economy, and opportunities for more efficient urban supply chains.

Who will use PAS 2070?

PAS 2070 is intended for international application. It can be used by organizations or individuals assessing GHG emissions of a city or an urban area, such as municipal or national governments, academic researchers, consultants, and others.

Who contributed to the development of PAS 2070?

Sponsored by the Greater London Authority (GLA), the specification was developed by an international group of subject experts, comprising:

  • ADAS UK Ltd
  • BioRegional Development Group
  • Blonk Milieu Advies
  • C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group
  • City of New York
  • Greater London Authority
  • ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability
  • London Sustainable Development Commission
  • Stockholm Environment Institute
  • Thames Water
  • Transport for London
  • University of Colorado Denver
  • University of Southampton
  • University of Toronto
  • WSP Group

Contributions were made by a wider international review panel in the public consultation stage of the project.

What does PAS 2070 cover?

PAS 2070 specifies requirements for the assessment of GHG emissions of a city or an urban area using two methodologies that provide different and complementary results. The GHG emission assessment methodologies are:

a) direct plus supply chain (DPSC) methodology;

b) a consumption-based (CB) methodology.

The DPSC methodology

The DPSC methodology captures territorial GHG emissions and those associated with the largest supply chains serving cities, many of which are associated with city infrastructures. It covers direct GHG emissions from activities within the city boundary and indirect GHG emissions from the consumption of grid-supplied electricity, district heating and/or cooling, transboundary travel and the supply chains from consumption of key goods and services produced outside the city boundary (e.g. water supply, food, building materials).

The CB methodology

The CB methodology captures direct and life cycle GHG emissions for all goods and services consumed by residents of a city, i.e. GHG emissions are allocated to the final consumers of goods and services, rather than the original producers of those GHG emissions.

The CB methodology does not assess the impacts of production of goods and services within a city that are exported for consumption outside the city boundary, visitor activities, or services provided to visitors.

Application of PAS 2070 – London supplements the specification by providing a detailed case study of the application of this PAS to London. It includes guidance on data collection, quantification, and provides a template for reporting.

Application of PAS 2070 – London, United Kingdom; An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions of a city (PDF)


PAS 2050:2011, Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services
Visit the PAS 2050 site and download the document
PAS 2050-1 free download is a few clicks away

PAS 2050-1:2012, Supplementary requirements for the cradle-to-gate stages of greenhouse gas assessments of horticultural products
Visit the PAS 2050-1 site and download the document

PAS 2050-2:2012, Assessment of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions - Supplementary requirements for the application of PAS 2050:2011 to seafood and other aquatic food products
Visit the PAS 2050-2 site and download the document

Smart city standards strategy

  • PAS 180 (in preparation), Smart cities – Vocabulary
  • PAS 181 (in preparation), Smart city framework – Guide for decision-makers in smart cities and communities
  • PAS 182 (in preparation), Smart city concept model for data interoperability
Read more

BS 8904 - Guidance for community sustainable development
Read more

BS ISO 37120 (in preparation), Sustainable development and resilience of communities – Indicators for city services and quality of life
Read more

BS ISO 37101 (in preparation), Communities sustainable development and resilience – Management system

BS EN 15804:2012 - Sustainability of construction works. Environmental product declarations. Core rules for the product category of construction products
Read more

Read more about Sustainability standards.

Do you want to know more about developing a PAS?
Read more

Find out more about published PASs
A wide range of PASs covering different industries are available to buy in the BSI shop and some are available for free download.
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