ASTM E2899 - 19e1 - Standard Test Method for Measurement of Initiation Toughness in Surface Cracks Under Tension and Bending

ASTM E2899 - 19e1

Standard Test Method for Measurement of Initiation Toughness in Surface Cracks Under Tension and Bending

Status : Current   Published : November 2019



1.1 This test method describes the method for testing fatigue-sharpened, semi-elliptically shaped surface cracks in rectangular flat panels subjected to monotonically increasing tension or bending. Tests quantify the crack-tip conditions at initiation of stable crack extension or immediate unstable crack extension.

1.2 This test method applies to the testing of metallic materials not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness. Materials are assumed to be essentially homogeneous and free of residual stress. Tests may be conducted at any appropriate temperature. The effects of environmental factors and sustained or cyclic loads are not addressed in this test method.

1.3 This test method describes all necessary details for the user to test for the initiation of crack extension in surface crack test specimens. Specific requirements and recommendations are provided for test equipment, instrumentation, test specimen design, and test procedures.

1.4 Tests of surface cracked, laboratory-scale specimens as described in this test method may provide a more accurate understanding of full-scale structural performance in the presence of surface cracks. The provided recommendations help to assure test methods and data are applicable to the intended purpose.

1.5 This test method prescribes a consistent methodology for test and analysis of surface cracks for research purposes and to assist in structural assessments. The methods described here utilize a constraint-based framework ( 1, 2)2 to evaluate the fracture behavior of surface cracks.

Note 1:  Constraint-based framework. In the context of this test method, constraint is used as a descriptor of the three-dimensional stress and strain fields in the near vicinity of the crack tip, where material contractions due to the Poisson effect may be suppressed and therefore produce an elevated, tensile stress state ( 3, 4). (See further discussions in Terminology and Significance and Use.) When a parameter describing this stress state, or constraint, is used with the standard measure of crack-tip stress amplitude ( K or J), the resulting two-parameter characterization broadens the ability of fracture mechanics to accurately predict the response of a crack under a wider range of loading. The two-parameter methodology produces a more complete description of the crack-tip conditions at the initiation of crack extension. The effects of constraint on measured fracture toughness are material dependent and are governed by the effects of the crack-tip stress-strain state on the micromechanical failure processes specific to the material. Surface crack tests conducted with this test method can help to quantify the material sensitivity to constraint effects and to establish the degree to which the material toughness correlates with a constraint-based fracture characterization.

1.6 This test method provides a quantitative framework to categorize test specimen conditions into one of three regimes: (I) a linear-elastic regime, (II) an elastic-plastic regime, or (III) a field-collapse regime. Based on this categorization, analysis techniques and guidelines are provided to determine an applicable crack-tip parameter for the linear-elastic regime ( K or J) or the elastic-plastic regime ( J), and an associated constraint parameter. Recommendations are provided to assess the test data in the context of a toughness-constraint locus ( 2). For tension loading, a computer program referred to as TASC V1.0.2 (Tool for Analysis of Surface Cracks) may be used to perform the analytical assessments in Section 9, Analysis of Results. The user is directed to other resources for evaluation of the test specimen in the field-collapse regime when extensive plastic deformation in the specimen eliminates the identifiable crack-front fields of fracture mechanics.

Note 2:  TASC. The computer program TASC is available at no charge either at or at The use of TASC relieves the user of the burden of performing unique elastic-plastic finite element analyses for each test performed in the elastic-plastic regime. For the purposes of this standard, TASC calculations are equivalent to finite element analysis results. Users of TASC should follow the methodologies in Annex A6 for establishing analysis material property inputs. Documentation on the development, verification and validation of TASC is provided in references ( 5, 6, 7, 8).

1.7 The specimen design and test procedures described in this test method may be applied to evaluation of surface cracks in welds; however, the methods described in this test method to analyze test measurements may not be applicable. Weld fracture tests generally have complicating features beyond the scope of data analysis in this test method, including the effects of residual stress, microstructural variability, and non-uniform strength. These effects will influence test results and must be considered in the interpretation of measured quantities.

1.8 This test method is not intended for testing surface cracks in steel in the cleavage regime. Such tests are outside the scope of this test method. A methodology for evaluation of cleavage fracture toughness in ferritic steels over the ductile-to-brittle region using C(T) and SE(B) specimens can be found in Test Method E1921.

1.9  Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

1.10  This practice may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.11  This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

Standard NumberASTM E2899 - 19e1
TitleStandard Test Method for Measurement of Initiation Toughness in Surface Cracks Under Tension and Bending
Publication Date15 November 2019
Normative References(Required to achieve compliance to this standard)No other standards are normatively referenced
Informative References(Provided for Information)No other standards are informatively referenced
Descriptors CMOD, constraint, crack initiation, crack mouth opening displacement, deformation limit, elastic-plastic regime, field-collapse regime, length scale, linear-elastic regime, one-parameter fracture, stable crack extension, stress intensity factor, two-parameter fracture, unstable crack extension
File Size1.599 MB

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