BS EN 71-1:2014+A1:2018 Safety of toys – Part 1: Mechanical and physical properties

BS EN 71-1:2014+A1:2018

Safety of toys. Mechanical and physical properties

Status : Current, Under review   Published : November 2014



What is this standard about?

 This is the first part of a multiple-part European standard on the safety of toys. 

The BS EN 71 series is prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2009/48/EC. The whole series consists of the following parts:  

  • Part 1: Mechanical and physical properties [this standard]
  • Part 2: Flammability
  • Part 3: Migration of certain elements
  • Part 4: Experimental sets for chemistry and related activities
  • Part 5: Chemical toys (sets) other than experimental sets
  • Part 7: Finger paints, Requirements and test methods
  • Part 8: Activity toys for domestic use
  • Part 9: Organic chemical compounds – Requirements
  • Part 10: Organic chemical compounds – Sample preparation and extraction
  • Part 11: Organic chemical compounds – Methods of analysis
  • Part 12: N-Nitrosamines and N-nitrosatable substances
  • Part 13: Olfactory board games, cosmetic kits and gustative games
  • Part 14: Trampolines for domestic use

NB: For the safety of electric toys see: BS EN 62115:Electric toys. Safety

Who is this standard for?

This standard is for anyone who wants to maintain conformity with the European Toy Safety directive. Specifically it will be essential reading for:

  • Toy manufacturers wishing to comply with the provisions of the Toys (Safety) Regulations 2011 for toys placed on the market after 19 August 2011
  • Their authorised representatives
  • Importers of toys
  • Distributors of toys

The standard also informs consumers of what information they can expect from manufacturers and retailers. 

Why should you use this standard?

 This standard specifies requirements and methods of tests for mechanical and physical properties of toys. The aim is to reduce as far as possible hazards that are not evident to users. 

It doesn’t cover inherent hazards (e.g. instability of two-wheeled scooters, sharp needles in a sewing kit, etc.) that are obvious to children or the persons in charge of them. 

As a general rule, toys are designed and manufactured for particular ages of children. Their characteristics are related to the age and stage of development of the children, and their use presupposes certain aptitudes.

For providers of toys it offers a management tool to help with planning and a reference document with which to check current processes. It can also be used to indicate conformity via self-declaration or other party assessment. 

For consumers the standard provides a guide to the processes to be following, confirmation of which test methods must be followed and information on what they can expect from manufacturers and retailers. 

The standard applies to toys for children, toys being any product or material designed or intended, whether or not exclusively, for use in play by children of less than 14 years. It refers to new toys taking into account the period of foreseeable and normal use, and that the toys are used as intended or in a foreseeable way, bearing in mind the behaviour of children.

It includes specific requirements for toys intended for children under 36 months, children under 18 months and for children who are too young to sit up unaided. According to Directive 2009/48/EC “intended for use by” means that a parent or supervisor shall reasonably be able to assume by virtue of the functions, dimensions and characteristics of a toy that it is intended for use by children of the stated age group. Therefore, for the purpose of this European Standard, e.g. soft-filled toys with simple features intended for holding and cuddling are considered as toys intended for children under 36 months.

NOTE: Information relating to the age grading of toys and, in particular, which toys are intended for children under 36 months and which toys are not, can be found in the CEN Report CR 14379, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Age determination guidelines, CEN/CENELEC Guide 11 and the European Commission’s Guidance Documents.

This European Standard also specifies requirements for packaging, marking and labelling.It does not cover musical instruments, sports equipment or similar items but does include their toy counterparts.

This European Standard does not apply to the following toys:

  • playground equipment intended for public use
  • automatic playing machines, whether coin operated or not, intended for public use
  • toy vehicles equipped with combustion engines (see A.2)
  • toy steam engines
  • slings and catapults

Items that are propelled into free flight by a child releasing an elastic band (e.g. aeroplanes and rockets) are considered as catapults (see the 5th indent above).

This European Standard does not cover electrical safety aspects of toys. These are covered by BS EN 62115.

Furthermore, it does not cover the following items which, for the purpose of this European Standard, are not considered as toys:

  1. Decorative objects for festivities and celebrations
  2. Products for collectors, provided that the product or its packaging bears a visible and legible indication that it is intended for collectors of 14 years of age and above; examples of this category are:
      1) Detailed and faithful scale models (see A.2)
      2) Kits for the assembly of detailed scale models
      3) Folk dolls and decorative dolls and other similar articles
      4) Historical replicas of toys
      5) Reproductions of real fire arms
  3. Sports equipment including roller skates, inline skates, and skateboards intended for children with a body mass of more than 20 kg
  4. Bicycles with a maximum saddle height of more than 435 mm, measured as the vertical distance from the ground to the top of the seat surface, with the seat in a horizontal position and with the seat pillar set to the minimum insertion mark
  5. Scooters and other means of transport designed for sport or which are intended to be used for travel on public roads or public pathways
  6. Electrically driven vehicles which are intended to be used for travel on public roads, public pathways, or the pavement thereof
  7. Aquatic equipment intended to be used in deep water, and swimming learning devices for children, such as swim seats and swimming aids
  8. Puzzles with more than 500 pieces
  9. Guns and pistols using compressed gas, with the exception of water guns and water pistols;
  10. Bows for archery over 120 cm long
  11. Fireworks, including percussion caps which are not specifically designed for toys
  12. Products and games using sharp-pointed missiles, such as sets of darts with metallic points
  13. Functional educational products, such as electric ovens, irons or other functional products, as defined in EU Directive 2009/48/EC, operated at a nominal voltage exceeding 24 V which are sold exclusively for teaching purposes under adult supervision
  14. Products intended for use for educational purposes in schools and other pedagogical contexts under the surveillance of an adult instructor, such as science equipment
  15. Electronic equipment, such as personal computers and game consoles, used to access interactives software and their associated peripherals, unless the electronic equipment or the associated peripherals are specifically designed for and targeted at children and have a play value on their own, such as specially designed personal computers, key boards, joy sticks or steering wheels
  16. Interactive software, intended for leisure and entertainment, such as computer games, and their storage media, such as CDs
  17. Babies' soothers
  18. Child-appealing luminaires
  19. Electrical transformers for toys
  20. Fashion accessories for children which are not for use in play (see A.2)
  21. Personal protective equipment, including flotation aids such as arm bands and swim seats (see A.23) and swimming goggles, sunglasses and other eye protectors as well as bicycle and skateboard helmets (see A.19)

In the scope, a number of toys are listed which this standard does not apply to. “Slings and catapults” includes slingshots but also, according to a communication from the EU Commission in 1992, toys (e.g. aeroplanes and rockets) which are propelled into free flight by a child releasing an elastic band.

In addition, a number of products are listed which, for the purpose of this standard, are not considered as toys.

However, some comments are considered to be necessary:

  • “toy vehicles equipped with combustion engines” also includes the engine itself as well as spare parts
  • “detailed and faithful scale models” covers, for example, replicas of ships
  • the exemption for “Fashion accessories for children which are not for use in play” does not apply to jewellery with play value, for instance jewellery sold with toy disguise costumes and (imitation) jewellery to be assembled by the child himself (for classification of toy creative kits, see European Commission’s guidance document)

It should also be observed that the CE-marking is not to be affixed to products or toys excluded from this European Standard unless an EC-type examination certificate has been issued under Directive 2009/48/EC, or if the product falls under the scope of another EU Directive which requires the affixing of the CE-marking.

What’s changed since the last update?

This document supersedes BS EN 71-1:2014 and combines three amendments into one which covers:

  • Cords and drawstrings in toys and packaging 
  • Projectiles, rotors, propellers and flying toys
  • EN 71-1:2014/prA3:2015 Safety of toys - Part 1: Mechanical and physical properties

Standard NumberBS EN 71-1:2014+A1:2018
TitleSafety of toys. Mechanical and physical properties
StatusCurrent, Under review
Publication Date30 November 2014
Normative References(Required to achieve compliance to this standard)EN 15649-3:2009+A1:2012, EN 15649-2:2009+A2:2013, EN ISO 3746, ISO 3744, EN ISO 6508-1, ISO 11201, ISO 4593, ISO 3746, ISO 868, EN ISO 4287, ISO 3745, EN 71-8, EN 50332-1, EN ISO 11201, EN ISO 11202, ISO 6508-1, ISO 11202, ISO 7619-2, EN ISO 868, EN ISO 3744, EN 61672-1, EN ISO 3745, EN 14682, ISO 4287, IEC/TS 60318-7, IEC 61672-1
Informative References(Provided for Information)ISO/IEC Guide 37:2012, ISO 8124-1, EN 13843, ISO/TR 8124-8, CEN ISO/TR 8124-8, IEC 62115, EN 13138-1, IEC 60318-4, CEN/CENELEC Guide 11, EN 13613, EN 13899, EN 60318-4, CEN/TR 13387, EN 13138-2, GUM:1995, ISO 8098, ASTM F963, ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, EN 62115, EN 13138-3, EN ISO 8098, EN 14619
ReplacesBS EN 71-1:2011+A3:2014
International RelationshipsEN 71-1:2014+A1:2018
Amended ByAmendment, July 2018
Draft Superseded By16/30318991 DC
DescriptorsGraphic symbols, Toys, Soft toys, Baby toys, Mechanical testing, Labels, Physical testing, Mechanical properties of materials, Age, Marking, Safety measures, Physical properties of materials, Packaging
Title in FrenchSécurité des jouets Propriétés mécaniques et physiques
Title in GermanSicherheit von Spielzeug Mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften
ISBN978 0 580 89306 3
File Size6.413 MB

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